Boko haram reportedly released all but one of the girls by 21 march. Growth and fiscal consequences of terrorism in nigeria. Terrorism is a globalized phenomenon confronting the international community. Unfortunately, all the types of terrorism can be seen in nigeria. A religious sect or terrorist organization mike eshioke okemi benson idahosa university, benin city, nigeria and university of abuja, nigeria abstract. The cycle of violence being unleashed on nigerians by the fundamentalist group, boko haram has heightened fears among the populace and the international community that the hostility has gone beyond religions or political coloration hence the need to. But the slaves of the fulanis will read this, yet they cannot understand. This study is focused on examining the spinoff of terrorism in nigeria as it reins in industrial. Selected literature on terrorism and religion jstor. The paper focuses on terrorism in nigeria and an overview on the terrorism prevention act in nigeria. The modern state of nigeria has its origins infused in british colonization, which thextended from the 19th century to the 20 century. Terrorism in nigeria started with the notorious islamic sect in the northern part of nigeria called mataisine during shagari civilian regime which was aborted by a military coup in december 1983 led by general muhammadu buhari. If this is a truism, then nigeria s educational system is supposed to help her overcome the problem of terrorism that is shaking it to its foundation.
This chapter examines the causes and consequences of terrorism in africa, and considers the extent to which existing evidence rationalizes the various explanations for it, and its implications for counterterrorism policy in africa. The main threat comes from religious political groups that want to turn nigeria into an islamic state. In nigeria, the two major dominant religious groups in the country, islam and christianity are the. International journal of business, economics and law, vol. Pdf religious extremism and terrorism in nigeria researchgate. Since the july 2009 boko haram terrorist outburst in nigeria, there have been increasing questions on the phenomenon in the country. The author suggests that the effective formulation and implementation. This is the fifth edition of the global terrorism index gti. Groups, activities, and politics adeyemi bukola oyeniyi abstract while global attention is focused on embassy bombing, aircraft hijacking and 911 terroristsattack kind of terrorism, equally devastating terrorist activities with equally devastating. In this research paper, icct visiting fellow akinola olojo examines the key drivers of public support for boko haram in northern nigeria.
Terrorist activities have taken a new turn in the wake of 21st century, thereby creating a sense of insecurity in the global family, the. There has not been any substantial analysis on the emergence of the boko haram group and its terrorist activities in nigeria as the outrage continues. Boko haram kidnapped 110 schoolgirls from the government technical girls college in dapchi, yobe, on 19 february 2018. Terrorism as a manifestation of conflict could be a historically persistent phenomena with roots in the past. On 2 april, a boko haram attack on the outskirts of maiduguri resulted in the death of 18 people and another 84 wounded. The paper examines the definition and forms of acts of terrorism in nigeria with a view to understanding the continual existence of the menace despite measures adopted by the government to counter terrorism. In nigeria, the various acts of violence experienced after independence took a new dimension in 2009 with the emergence of terrorist activities in the northern part of the country. Here you will see the meaning, causes, effects and possible ways to combat it in nigeria. In nigeria, boko haram wa s responsible for more than 80 percent of all terrorist attacks between 1970 and 201 3 for which a perpetrator group was identified, despite their relatively recent onset of violence in 2009. The boko haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist group boko haram started an armed rebellion against the government of nigeria.
Arguably, religious extremism is a major derivative of terrorism in the contemporary world. Only those with liberated minds will understand, irrespective of their tribe or religion. However, there is a significant shia minority, primarily in kaduna, kano, katsina, osun, ilorin and sokoto states see shia in nigeria. The threat from boko haram and ansaru the henry jackson society 3 the henry jackson society the henry jackson society is a crosspartisan thinktank based in london. Before the public manifestation of boko haram terrorist activities in 2009, nigeria. Religion plays a serious role in fostering terrorist. D department of history, adeyemi federal university of education p. Rise of terrorism in africa manohar parrikar institute. The fourth aspect of the paper looks at the antecedent of boko haram as a terrorist group in nigeria. An assessment ojo joseph rapheal department of religion and african culture, adekunle ajasin university, p. These words constitute a brand used in identifying the nature of insecurity peculiar to nigeria among other african nations.
Journal of religion and theology v2 i1 2018 1 understanding the twists and turns of terrorism among muslims in the nigerian experience. It has grown both in strength and trend and its impact felt in different parts of the world including. Growth and fiscal consequences of terrorism in nigeria 1 chuku chuku, dominic abang, and imaabasi isip jel codes. In particular, a 2012 pew forum survey on religious diversity identified 12%. It amended the countrys first counterterrorism law, which was passed in 2011. This study is advanced to explain the phenomenon of boko haram terrorism in nigeria. Nigeria 5 international religious freedom report for 2018 united states department of state bureau of democracy, human rights, and labor state officials and many religious leaders have stated students have the right to request a teacher of their own religious beliefs to provide an alternative to any. Causes and consequences of terrorism in africa oxford. For example, in plateau state, in nigeria s middle belt, there have been many outbreaks of bloody violence between different communities since the. Religion refers to the belief in the existence of a god or gods. Pdf arguably, religious extremism is a major derivative of terrorism in the contemporary world.
Based on the religious demography of nigeria, it is not surprising that religion. But what are the main causes of terrorism in nigeria. This article is useful for curious knowledge seekers, researchers as well as policymakers in nigeria. Nigeria s ranking on the global terrorism index rose from 16th out of 158 countries in 2008 to 6th tied with somalia by the end of 2011. N orthern nigeria has been the locus of an upsurge in youth radicalization and virulent militant islamist groups in nigeria since 2009. The conflict takes place within the context of longstanding issues of religious violence between nigeria s muslim and christian communities, and the insurgents ultimate aim is to establish an islamic state. Department of economics, kogi state university, anyiba, kogi state, nigeria. Muslims in nigeria are predominantly sunnis of the maliki school of thought. Based on continued systematic, ongoing, and egregious violations of freedom of religion or belief, uscirf again finds that nigeria merits designation in 2019 as a country of particular concern, or cpc, under the international religious freedom act irfa, as it has found since 2009.
Why does religion seem to need violence, and violence religion, and why is a. Haram, kidnapping, niger delta crises, and ethno religious crises. This is because of its highly volatile nature in nigeria. Introduction nigeria has had a long and unfortunate history of communal conflicts and ethno religious violence. A sociohistorical reconsideration okoro kingsley, department of philosophy and religion, ebonyi state university abakaliki, nigeria abstract. The movement is unique in that it combines a sectarian, radical islamic agenda with violence. There is an arc of instability spreading across africa, from nigeria in the west to somalia in the east. The factor focused on in the current study is religion.
Identity, religion, boko haram, poverty, northern nigeria. However, religious extremism has become a central issue for the global community. Terrorism is a grave threat to any nations growth and development, as well as the welfare of its citizens. The paper aimed to discuss terrorism with a view to explore the definitional concept of terrorism and with reference to its scope, various form and categories of terrorism were also considered.
It is in the light of this that this paper examines terrorism and ins ecurity in nigeria and proffered moral, values and religious education as panaceas. This is not to suggest that it is the only model because nationalism and ideology remain as potent catalysts for extremist behavior. Similarly, counter terrorism initiatives that embrace the utility of soft power might be more successful than those that rely on the use of naked force. In nigeria, terrorism is traceable to religious fanaticism particularly in islam dominated states of nigeria. The impact of boko haram insurgency on nigerian national. Mass media relevance in combating insecurity in nigeria. Also, the continued violence and the inaction of the government is suggestive of a deliberate agenda, championed by the hausafulani muslim herdsmen, to occupy an area considered as being dominated by one ethno religious group.
The act of terrorism and general insecurity situations in nigeria require that solution be. Terrorist organizations and some radical criminals create a very unsafe situation. In nigeria, the two major dominant religious groups in. Examining the boko haram insurgency in northern nigeria and the quest for a permanent resolution of the crisis joseph olukayode akinbi ph. The effort to provide nigeria with a comprehensive legal framework for combating terrorism was formalized with the introduction of the terrorism prevention act on february 17, 20.
The report provides a comprehensive summary of the key global trends and patterns in terrorism over the last 17 years in covering the period from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2016. Types of terrorism in nigeria and causes information. Our founders and supporters are united by a common interest in fostering a strong british, european, and. Terrorism has been an intense threat in nigeria that causes has fathomed been researched to be from a lot of existing challenges of which the two basic challenges are political and religious war.
Boko haram, insurgency, international terrorism, humanitarian crisis, nigeria, isil. Terrorism has grown exponentially in the african continent, not only in terms of the number of attacks but also the number of countries affected. Abstract terrorism is the premeditated use or threat to use violence by individuals or subnational groups against non. Understanding the religious terrorism of boko haram in nigeria. This is against the backdrop of the rising spate of violent attacks. Nature of terrorism and antiterrorism laws in nigeria. Understanding the twists and turns of terrorism among. The state of insecurity engendered by boko haram insurgency in nigeria. Terrorism can have many forms, it can be religious, economic or even cultural. Federal university lafia, nigeria abstract this paper explores the humanitarian impact of terrorism in nigeria from the standpoint of boko haram insurgency.
In the fifth section, the paper take a cursory look at the counter terrorism. Religious terrorism t errorism in the name of religion has become the predominant model for political violence in the modern world. While the soft power of terrorist organisations has received scant attention, there has been modest scholarly inquiry into a soft power approach to counter terrorism. Pdf boko haram, a radical islamist group from northeastern nigeria, has caused severe. This study adopts poverty theory to examine the threat of boko haram insurgency on nigerian national security. Why does religion seem to need violence, and violence religion, and why is a divine.1182 1530 907 302 1278 625 1469 472 894 561 1034 1177 335 120 368 1514 1230 1592 1518 1140 1023 301 1227 826 820 1368 160 377 1045 684 973 348 1359 1610 240 1472 496 1010 407 1453 377 732