Superior vena cava syndrome in children springerlink. The superior vena cava is a major vein in a persons body. Superior vena cava syndrome with malignant causes nejm. Complications such as postoperative asymptomatic pulmonary embolism, filter migration, and superior vena cava syndrome did not occur in any of the cases within the 6 months to 24 months of follow up. Etiologic considerations in superior vena cava syndrome. May 01, 2008 superior vena cava syndrome svcs is rare in childhood. The superior vena cava is a large vein that transmits blood from the upper body back to the heart. T1 etiologic considerations in superior vena cava syndrome. Persistent left superior vena cava with absent right superior vena cava is a very rare venous anomaly and is known as isolated plsvc.
A reassessment of the clinical applications of the superior vena cava syndrome. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs represents undoubtedly a rare lifethreatening condition. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs develops when your superior vena cava is partially or fully blocked. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs is rare in childhood.
Superior vena cava obstruction radiology reference. Introduction superior vena cava svc syndrome results from any condition that leads to obstruction of blood flow through the svc. Congenital or acquired abnormalities can affect the. Superior vena cava svc obstruction can occur from extrinsic compression, intrinsic stenosis, or thrombosis. Thrombectomy, thrombosis, superior vena cava syndrome, superior vena cava obstruction doi. Malignant obstruction can be caused by direct invasion of tumor into the svc, or by external compression of the svc by an adjacent pathologic process involving the right lung, lymph nodes, and other mediastinal structures, leading to stagnation of flow and. The majority of cases are caused by malignant tumors within the mediastinum, most commonly lung cancer and nonhodgkins lymphoma, directly compressing or invading the svc wall. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs is a disorder defined by internal or external obstruction of the superior vena cava svc, leading to reduced venous blood return into the right heart. The drawing below shows where the superior vena cava is located in the body. Learn more about superior vena cava syndrome from related diseases, pathways, genes and ptms with the novus bioinformatics tool. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs is a group of symptoms that can occur in people who have lung cancer, lymphoma, or other cancers that involve the center of the chest. Superior vena cava syndrome march 2002 rahul gupta, md and seema gupta, md.
In this setting, cervical venous pressure usually increases to 2040 mmhg. I have found content for some of superior vena cava syndrome s orphans, the problem is that i found more than one version. Superior vena cava syndrome approach bmj best practice. Malignant causes represents the majority of all cases of svcs. Media in category superior vena cava syndrome the following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. The possibility of a primary superior vena caval neoplasm as a cause of superior vena caval obstruction should be considered in patients presenting with superior vena caval syndrome. Superior vena cava syndrome is a clinical diagnosis, and associated imaging findings include widening of the mediastinum on radiographs and mediastinal soft tissue on ct, interruption of contrast material within the superior vena cava on contrastenhanced ct, and opacification of collateral vascularity fig. The superior vena cava syndrome svcs involves a group of symptoms deriving from obstruction or compression of the superior vena cava. Superior vena cava syndrome possibilities of intervention. The advanced practitioner caring for a cancer patient with these symptoms needs to recognize the lifethreatening diagnosis of svcs as a priority consideration in the list of differential diagnoses. Superior vena cava and the azygos system clinical anatomy. A contemporary perspective on superior vena cava syndrome.
Unexpected cause of superior vena cava syndrome diamantini. Clinical condition that occurs due to obstruction of the superior vena cava. Because the superior vena cava svc is located within the narrow space of the mediastinum, any intraluminal or extraluminal compression impairs venous drainage and results in. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs is a medical condition which consists of the obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava. Information and translations of superior vena cava syndrome in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs is rare in children. Lung cancer is the most common etiology, nonsmall cell lung cancer accounting for 50% of cases of malignant svc syndrome and small cell lung cancer for 25% cases. Lung cancer survivors after his recurrence in may, my father has been diagnosed with superior vena cava syndrome and it turns out that this is the reason why his.
The superior vena cava is located in the middle of the chest and is surrounded by rigid structures and lymph nodes. Nov 01, 2012 superior vena cava syndrome caused by cancer is a poor prognostic sign that is associated with high mortality. Mar 27, 2020 superior vena cava syndrome svcs is obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava svc. Role of irradiation in the management of superior vena cava syndrome. Nonhodgkins lymphoma nhl is the most common cause of svcs in children. It is usually an asymptomatic anomaly and is mostly detected during difficult central venous access or pacemaker implantation, though it could also be associated with an increased incidence of congenital heart disease, arrhythmias, and conduction disturbances. The superior vena cava syndrome svcs refers to a group of symptoms caused by obstruction or compression of the superior vena cava. Cleveland clinic journal of medicine october 2002, 69 10 744. It receives blood from the upper half of the body except the heart and returns it to the right atrium. The symptoms that result from compression of the large vein that carries blood down to the heart. Extent bw 1st to 3rd costal cartilage receives the azygos vein immediately before entering the pericardial sac venous blood from headneckupper. Superior vena cava syndrome etiology bmj best practice.
Herein, we present a rare case of a 69yearold woman, with a history of hepatic flexure tumor and an indwelling central venous port, presenting with acute signs and symptoms of svcs due to thrombosis of the catheter. Diagnosis could be confirmed in 17 cases as one child succumbed to severe respiratory distress without a definitive diagnosis. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs is a partial or complete obstruction of the blood flow returning to the heart from the head, neck, upper thorax, and upper extremities. The presence of this complication is an ominous prognostic sign, carrying a life expectancy of 4. The superior of superir vena cava obstruction is often made at the bedside. It can occur due to both benign and malignant causes with the. Superior vena cava syndrome possibilities of intervention therapy beran s. Malignant causes represents the majority of all cases of svcs bronchogenic carcinoma, lymphoma, metastatic breast carcinoma, primary mediastinal tumors, acute leukemias. Superior vena cava an overview sciencedirect topics. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs, is a group of symptoms caused by obstruction of the superior vena cava svc, a short, wide vessel carrying circulating blood into the heart. A 58yearold man presents with a 2week history of progressive dyspnea on exertion, neck swelling, decreased appetite, and fatigue. Superior vena cava syndrome svcs occurs when a persons superior vena cava is partially blocked or compressed. Superior vena cava syndrome is referred to as a constellation of symptoms and signs caused by obstruction of superior vena cava.
The superior vena cava svc is a large valveless venous channel formed by the union of the brachiocephalic veins. Pdf superior vena cava syndrome in childhood kolade. The majority of cases are caused by malignant tumors within the mediastinum, most commonly lung cancer and nonhodgkins lymphoma, directly compressing or invading. It carries blood from the head, neck, upper chest, and arms to the heart. Unexpected cause of superior vena cava syndrome superior vena cava syndrome svcs may be caused by an extrinsecal vessel compressing or by thrombosis. Symptoms are edema of the face and arms and development of swollen collateral veins on the front of the chest wall, shortness of breath, coughing, headache and stridor. It is a medical emergency and most often manifests in patients with a malignant disease process within the thorax. Obstruction of the superior vena cava svc may occur as an acute or subacute process producing a syndrome with characteristic features including facial edema and plethora, dilation of chest wall and neck veins, mild to moderate respiratory difficulty, and, less commonly, conjunctival edema, central nervous system complaints such as headache, or, more rarely, visual disturbances. Superior vena cava syndrome due to central port catheter. I cant determine which if any is correct for this article, so i am asking for a sentient editor to look it over and copy the correct ref content into this article. This report an adolescent male who presented with svcs due to mixed germ cell tumor gct of the anterior mediastinum with predominant yolk cell component. Malignant superior vena cava syndrome ann thorac cardiovasc surg vol. Malignancies are the main cause and are considered an oncologic emergency. Superior vena cava definition of superior vena cava by.1521 153 331 258 1492 1560 806 304 617 116 838 436 1176 586 127 1200 1189 1124 1250 595 36 1352 701 802 591 278 556 144 556 1156 1004 64 953 29 94 203 1591 347 1091 684 427 662 1273 1149 1216